Murder is the act of killing another human being without justification or valid excuse, and it is especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Most societies, from ancient to modern, have considered murder a very serious crime deserving harsh punishment for purpose of retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. There are many reasons why murder has been criminalised, including its costs to society as well as being considered intrinsically wrong. For example, murder may be considered intrinsically wrong because it violates a right to life or is oppressive; murder may be costly to society by undermining law and order, by squandering potential accomplishments of the victims, by risking escalation of violence, or by spreading fear and grief.
Voluntary manslaughter occurs either when the defendant is strongly provoked (under circumstances that could similarly provoke a reasonable person) and kills in the heat of passion aroused by that provocation. whereas Involuntary manslaughter is the unlawful killing of a human being without malice aforethought, either expressed or implied. It is distinguished from voluntary manslaughter by the absence of intention.
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